By O. Ford. Watkins College of Art, Design and Film. 2018.

Each group of 95 animals of each sex comprised 50 animals of each sex for evaluation of carcinogenic response generic risperdal 3mg with amex medicine zetia, 30 animals of each sex for evaluation of haematological end-points and bone-marrow cellularity generic 4mg risperdal otc medications that cause weight gain, and 15 animals of each sex from which blood was drawn for determination of the plasma concentrations of zidovudine at week 54. The survival and mean body weights of mice exposed to zidovudine were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. Squamous- cell carcinomas or papillomas (combined) of the vagina occurred in 0/50, 0/49, 5/45 (p = 0. The incidences of Harderian gland tumours in male mice were 3/50, 5/50, 2/50 and 10/50 (p = 0. At day 91, the high dose was lowered to 450 mg/kg bw per day because of the occurrence of anaemia. Progression of anaemia led to a further reduction of the high dose to 300 mg/kg bw per day on day 278. Two separate groups of 60 male and 60 female rats were left untreated or were given the vehicle alone. The study was terminated at 24 and 22 months for male and female rats, respectively. Tissues from all rats in the untreated, vehicle control and high-dose groups were examined microscopically. In addition, the vaginas from all female rats at the low and intermediate doses were examined. Treatment with zidovudine did not affect the survival rate in either of the sexes, and the rate at 18 months was 50% or greater. Two squamous-cell carcinomas of the distal vagina were observed in females at the high dose, but no vaginal tumours occurred in the other groups, or in the untreated or vehicle control groups. Treatment with zidovudine did not affect the incidence of any other benign or malignant tumour in any tissue or organ examined [specific tumour incidences not reported] (Ayers et al. At weaning, zidovudine was admi- nistered to the offspring at the same doses in the drinking-water for 17–35 days and then by gavage for 24 months. Two additional groups were treated similarly with 40 mg/kg bw per day, but one group was treated only until day 21 of lactation and the second by gavage for 90 days after birth. Two groups each of 60 female mice were either untreated or were given the vehicle, beginning on day 10 of gestation and throughout gestation, parturition and lactation, and then in the drinking-water for 17–35 days, followed by daily gavage for 24 months. The study was designed to give a total of 70 male and 70 female progeny in each dose group. No treatment- related increase in the incidence of neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions was observed in males [specific tumour incidences not reported]. Ten pups of each sex from each group were killed 13, 26 and 52 weeks after delivery. At week 52, the observation of lung and liver tumours prompted the authors to kill additional mice and to report the results. The numbers of mice in each group were 31 male controls and 23 and 26 at the low and high doses and 30 female controls and 22 and 24 at the low and high doses. In the two sexes combined, the incidence of lung carcinomas was 3% in controls, 7% at the low dose and 14% at the high dose (p = 0. Neoplasms of the ovary, uterus and vagina were seen in 0% of controls, 14% at the low dose and 17% at the high dose (p = 0. The incidence of hepatocellular tumours (mainly adenomas) was increased in males, being about 13% in controls, 30% at the low dose and 52% at the high dose; the multiplicity of hepatocellular tumours was 0. Most (82%) of the skin tumours were papillomas; the rest (18%) were keratoacanthomas (Zhang et al. Two additional groups of 50 female mice were either left untreated or were given the vehicle intravaginally. Vaginal squamous-cell carcinomas were observed in 2/50 mice at the low dose and 13/50 at the high dose [p < 0. Vaginal epithelial-cell tumours were not seen in either control group (Ayers et al.

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In experimental studies for determining whether or not a drug will facilitate interrogation discount risperdal 2 mg otc in treatment online, the fact that intelligence and gender separately affect speech requires consideration buy 3 mg risperdal fast delivery symptoms 20 weeks pregnant. These investigators explored the effects of a placebo, promazine, secobarbital, and meperidine hydrochloride on a series of objective motor, intellectual, and perceptual activities, as well as on subjective responses. The subjective responses were evaluated 30, 90, 150, and 210 min after the drug was taken. Promazine and secobarbital had an adverse effect on the performance of motor tasks but not on simple intellectual and perceptual tasks. Meperidine hydrochloride in 50 to 100-mg doses did not impair performance in any of these same psychologic functions. Finally, if large enough doses of a drug were given, all subjects tended to respond in the same manner. At intervals, before and after administration of the drugs, the subjects completed a questionnaire designed to measure the "subjective" mood changes induced, and this was supplemented by discussing with the subjects their responses to the drugs. In "normal" and, to a lesser degree, in chronically ill patients, amphetamine surpassed morphine, heroin, pentobarbital, and a placebo in producing euphoria. In the narcotic addicts, however, morphine was reported to produce a more pleasant effect than heroin, amphetamine, or a placebo. The sedation threshold, as measured by the onset of slurred speech, was highest for neurotic introverts and it decreased step-wise for each of the groups in the order given. In other words, the group of introverted neurotics required the largest amount of intravenous sodium amytal (6. Some of the brain-damaged patients, who before receiving the drug had expressed awareness of illness and who had good orientation for place and person, with the drug became disoriented for place and grossly misidentified the examiners and explicitly denied illness. Weinstein claims that these changes with sodium amytal occurred only in the brain-damaged individuals; whereas, in nonbrain-damaged individuals receiving sodium amytal, the subjects talked of illness in terms of a third person, used more "concrete" symbols, selectively misinterpreted questions about illness, and misnamed the examiners in "paraphasic" fashion. Hoch, Cattell, and Pennes (64, 65) administered sodium amytal, pervitin, and mescaline to each of sixteen patients suffering from the pseudo neurotic form of schizophrenia, twenty-four patients with an overt form of schizophrenia with slight. With these drugs, especially with mescaline, they found typical physiologic changes occurring, mainly involving the vegetative nervous system. However, with most patients, some aspects of the drug experience seemed to be a direct continuation of previous personality factors. For instance, a patient who showed obsessive compulsive features before the drug experiment would tend to show the same obsessive structure while intoxicated. The same was true about anxiety attitudes, intellectualizations of conflicts, preoccupations with artistic, philosophical, or other matters. Although Beringer () in his drug studies, using mescaline, did not find any correlation between personality and drug reaction, Stockings (122) found that cyclothymic and schizothymic individuals re- -107- sponded differently. Bensheim (15) thought that the cyclothymic group responded with euphoria and depression to mescaline and the schizothymic group with ecstasy. Guttman and MacClay (59) and Sarwer-Foner (118) also found correlations between personality and drug reactions. It is perhaps of interest here that Russian scientists have also emphasized the differential response of different types of individuals to drugs, specifically chlorpromazine (86). It has been obvious to those who listen to and study people with personality disorders that the verbal behavior of an individual suffering from an emotional disorder is relatively peculiar, both in form and in content. The hysteric and schizophrenic are quite variable in the duration and length of their remarks. There are typical thematic and structural characteristics of the speech habits of patients with these types of psychiatric disorders. Years of intensive research are needed to supply some of this unavailable knowledge. However, it is already acknowledged that individuals with features of hysterical, conversion, or dissociative reactions are likely to be suggestible and to react strongly to all psychopharmacologic agents, including placebos (83, 85). Drugs may tend to reinforce the need to give for individuals burdened with feelings of neurotic shame and guilt, especially if such feelings are enhanced by the interrogator. Drugs may also furnish the needed excuse and relief from personal responsibility for sources who violate internalized values and loyalties in revealing information.

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